The Mongol Invasion and the End of the Árpád Dynasty
Crusade of Andras II (1217-1218)
In the early 13th century, Andras II, the King of Hungary, embarked on a crusade. This religious, military expedition, a hallmark of medieval European history, was accompanied by Minnesingers Ruethal and Tannhauser, troubadours who immortalized the event in song.
The Golden Bull (1222)
In 1222, the Golden Bull was issued, granting Hungarian nobility the right to oppose the king, even by force, if their privileges were infringed upon. The consequences of this charter were significant, as it effectively limited the monarch’s absolute power and laid the foundations for a form of constitutionalism in Hungary.
Mongol Invasion (1241-1242)
One of the most traumatic events in Hungarian history occurred in the mid-13th century when Mongol forces invaded the country. The Hungarian army was defeated at the Battle of Muhi by the Mongols, or Tatars, as they were also known. King Bela IV was forced to take refuge in Trau (modern-day Trogir in Croatia), marking a major shift in the region’s power dynamics.
End of the Árpád Dynasty (1301)
The Árpád Dynasty, which had ruled Hungary since the late 9th century, ended in 1301 with the death of King Andras III. This marked the close of an era in Hungarian history and the beginning of a new political and social change period.